We have to distinguish between two fundamentally different types of circuit models for|
electromagnetics. Some of them are based on a differential equation (DE) formulation of
Maxwell’s equations, while others are based on integral equation (IE) form.
The DE forms are commensurate with the system of equations that results from the formulation
of a problem in terms of DEs. This results in circuit models that have neighborto-
neighbor coupling only. The most well-known form is the finite difference time domain
(FDTD) method, which is a direct numerical solution of Maxwell’s equations. The advantages
of DE methods is that very sparse systems of equation result. At the same time, these
systems are larger than the ones obtained from IE-based methods.
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